Raising the Kursk from the Barent Sea became possible due to the
know-how of the engineering association IgH in Essen.
Tasks of IgH:
In June 2001 the Dutch salvage company Mammoet firstly engaged IgH to
mathematically model the wave compensators - 104 giant pneumatic
cylinders with 32 connected gas bottles each. The plant has a total
volume of nearly 200.000 litres and is operated with nitrogen at a
pressure of 100 to 160 bar. The purpose is to ensure a preferably uniform
tightening-up of the mooring ropes.
Based on this model IgH developed the complete control and
software concept for the salvage. This concept was implemented with the help of
specialists of the Dutch company Raster.
As a training for the operators, which operate the five control
computers in the control center, moreover a complete simulation model
of the entire process is created in Essen.
Part of the simulation model are:
the equations of motion of salvage pontoon
and Kursk in all six degrees of freedom considering the hydro
dynamic forces of the wave motion,
the thermodynamical model
and the mechanical model of the compensators and lifting mechanism. (We would like to thank
Prof. Dr. Sharma and his assistant Rupert Henn of the Institute
for Marine Engineering of the University of Duisburg for the active support).
the complete model of the PLC, including the sensors and
as well as the interface for the control computers.
Via this interface it is possible to operate the control computers
either by the PLC in the field or by a simulator. Besides training
for this unique operation, where everything has to work at the first
time, it is also possible to play through scenarios and
determine the optimum reactions to dangerous and unexpected situations
The 52-member European team on board comprises Dutch,
Belgians, Scots, Norwegians and Russians who, together with Dr. Rotthäuser
and Dr. Hagemeister, are responsible for the management of the
Special features of the control software of IgH are the automatic
calculation of the optimum load distribution on the 26 mooring
ropes, which lift the Kursk and a specially developed control algorithm to adjust the gas energy in the wave compensators corresponding to the optimum load. This
process is the precondition for a reliable control of the operation
under conditions with wave heights of up to 3 meters.